Determinant Attributes of City Brand Personality That Influence Strategic Communication
This paper examines the determinant attributes of city brand personality that influence strategic communication of Bandar Melaka world heritage city UNESCO. The results will provide insight on the development of a city brand personality scale, that can be applied in the Malaysian context. Based on Aaker (1997), Brand Personality Scale (BPS), the study adjusted the scale used in the Bandar Melaka for strategic communication. The study approaches the issues from several perspectives including the marketing, tourism, strategic management and human communication in Bandar Melaka. It employs to administer the process of structural equation modelling to investigate the causal relationships between the dimensions of city brand determinants and city brand itself for strategic communication. Questionnaire surveys and interviews on measuring the determinants of city brand employs to examine the respondents’ perceptions of the dimensions of city brand affected the overall city brand evaluations. Data collects from the internal stakeholders that involving directly or indirectly for planning and developing of Bandar Melaka. The study has found four dimensions of the city brand personality, “Peacefulness”, “Malignancy”, “Sophistication” and “Uniqueness”. The City Personality Scale (CPS) proposes four dimensions with a total of seventeen items can be applied to the communication perspective of city brand in Malaysia. Implications for the stakeholders were discussed. They should consider the relative importance of brand dimensions in their overall city brand evaluations for strategic communication. City brand plays a pivotal role in contemporary strategic communication, and is the subject of much literature, both professional and academic. This study is perhaps one of the first to investigate city brand personality for strategic communication in Malaysia.
Key words: City branding; City brand personality; Strategic communication; Bandar Melaka
Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 347–356.
Aaker, J. L., V. Benet-Martı´nez & J. Garolera (2001). Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81, 3, 492–508.
Anderson, J. C. & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modelling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.
Austin, J. R., Siguaw, J. A. & Mattila, A. S. (2003). A re-examination of the generalizability of the Aaker brand personality measurement framework. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(2), 77-92.
Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS: Basic Concepts. Applications And Programming (2nd ed.). Routledge, New York.
Bollen. Kenneth A. (1990). Overall fit in covariance structure models: Two types of sample size effects. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 256-259.
Bowman, C. & Asch, D. (1987). Strategic Management. Basingstoke: MacMillan.
Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications And Programming (2nd ed.). Routledge, New York.
Dinnie Keith (2008). Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Hair, J. F. Jr, Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hallahan, K., Holtzhausen, D., Van Ruler, B., Vercic, D. & Sriramesh, K. (2007). Defining strategic communication. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 1(1), 3–35.
Hu, L. T. & P. M. Bentler (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structural analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Model, 6, 1-55.
Hankinson G. (2004). Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 109-121.
Hankinson G. (2001). Location branding: A study of the branding practices of 12 English cities. Journal of Brand Management, 9(2), 127-142.
Kavaratzis, M. & Mary Jo Hatch (2013, January 16). The dynamics of place brands: An identity-based approach to place branding theory. Marketing Theory ( pp.1-18).
Kavaratzis M & Ashworth G. J. (2005). City branding: An effective assertion of identity or a transitory marketing trick? Journal of Economic and Social Geography.
Kavaratzis M. (2004). From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands. Journal of Place Branding, 1(1), 58-73.
Kavaratzis, M. (2012). From ‘necessary evil’ to necessity: Stakeholders’ involvement in place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 5(1), 7 -19.
Murphy, P., Benckendorff, P. & Moscardo, G. (2007). Linking travel motivation, tourist self image and destination brand personality. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 22(2), 45-59.
Reisinger, Y. & Mavondo, F. (2006). Structural equation modelling: Critical issues and new developments. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 21, 41-71.
Settoon, R., Bennett, N. & Liden, R. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3), 219-227.
Shu-Chuan Chua & Yongjun Sung (2010). Brand personality dimensions in China. Journal of Marketing Communications, 17(3), 163-181.
Skinner, H. (2008). The emergence and development of place marketing’s confused identity. Journal of marketing management, 24(9-10), 915-928.
Sung, Y. & S. Tinkham. (2005). Brand personality structures in the United States and Korea: Common and culture-specific factors. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), 334-350.
Trueman M, Klemm M & Giroud A. (2004). Can a city communicate? Bradford as a corporate brand. Corporate Communications: an International Journal, 9(4), 317-330.
Van Ruler, B. & Vercic, D. (Eds.). (2004). Public Relations and Communication Management in Europe. A Nation-By Nation Introduction to Public Relations Theory and Practice. Berlin, New York: Mouton De Gruyter.
Van Ruler, B. & Vercic, D. (2005). Reflective Communication Management. Future Ways for Public Relations Research. In International Communication Association Communication Yearbook 29 (pp.239–273). New Brunswick, NJ: Translation Books.
Yanamandram, V. & White, L. (2006). Switching barriers in business-to-business services: A qualitative study. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 17 (2), 158-92.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture
Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138