Effects of Machiavellianism on Ingratiation in Organizational Settings

Sakinah Mat Zin, Noorazlina Ahmad, Nazlin Emieza Ngah, Rusnah Ismail, Iskandar Hasan Tan Abdullah, Norlaila Ibrahim


Abstract: Influential behaviour has generally been shaped by personality. In organizational research, Machiavellianism has commonly been defined as the need to develop and defend one’s power and success. It is the utilisation of power to incite other people to act or believe in conformity with one’s own principle and a personality disposition that involves manipulative and deceptive intent. Whereas, ingratiation is an influence tactic to obtain favour from somebody by purposeful efforts. It is depicted as subordinates’ improper efforts within an organisation to enhance their interpersonal allure in the eyes of their superior. In other words, the subordinates are attempting to obtain the superior's approval with the aim of attaining favourable perquisites such as promotions and raises. Thus, such influence tactic is more often than not, a reflection of a personality trait found in Machiavellianism. On this premise, this paper elucidates the relationship between Machiavellianism and ingratiatory behaviours of subordinates in organisations. Key words: Machiavellianism; Ingratiation; Employees; Influence; Management Résumé: Les comportements influents ont généralement été façonnés par la personnalité. Dans les recherches organisationnelles, le machiavélisme a souvent été défini comme la nécessité de développer et de défendre le pouvoir et succès de quelqu’un. L'utilisation du pouvoir peut inciter d'autres personnes à agir ou à croire en conformité avec son propre principe et une disposition de personnalité qui implique l'intention manipulatrice et trompeuse. Alors que, la complaisance est une tactique d’influence pour obtenir la faveur de quelqu'un par des efforts constructifs. Elles sont considérées comme des efforts incorrects des subordonnés au sein d'une organisation pour améliorer leur allure interpersonnelles aux yeux de leur supérieur. En d'autres termes, les subordonnés tentent d'obtenir l'approbation du supérieur dans le but d'atteindre les avantages indirects favorables telles que la promotion et l’augmentation de salaire. Ainsi, ce genre de tactique d’influence est souvent un reflet d'un trait de personnalité trouvé dans le machiavélisme. Sur ce prémisse, ce document met en lumière la relation entre le machiavélisme et les comportements de complaisance des subordonnés dans les organisations. Mots clés: Machiavélisme; Complaisance; Employés; Influence; Gestion

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/j.css.1923669720110702.025


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