Moroccan EFL Secondary School Teachers’ Current Practices and Challenges of Formative Assessment

Abdallah Ghaicha, Youssef Oufela

Abstract


This study aims at achieving two fundamental objectives: (1) exploring the extent to which Moroccan EFL secondary school teachers apply questioning, teacher feedback, peer-assessment and self-assessment as forms of formative assessment, and (2) identifying the micro and macro challenges that render the effective utility of formative assessment difficult. Despite the theoretical prominence of formative assessment, it has not been adequately addressed by research in Morocco. Therefore, exploring formative assessment practices might lead to a great understanding of what practices Moroccan EFL secondary school teachers frequently draw on to assess learners formatively. Following an explanatory sequential mixed-method design, the present study has gathered data from 98 EFL secondary school teachers using both questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The most important results reveal that not all formative assessment practices are frequently employed and that teachers experience a number of contextual, institutional and pedagogical challenges. The results obtained from this study are vital to different stakeholders: practitioners, teacher trainers, decision makers, researchers and teachers as well.

Keywords


Formative assessment; Teacher feedback; Peer-assessment; Self-assessment; Questioning; Challenge; Learning

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andrade, H. L., & Gregory, J. C. (2010). The handbook of formative assessment. New York: Routledge.

Andrade, H. L., Du, Y., & Wang, X. (2008). Putting rubrics to the test: The effect o f a model, criteria generation, and rubric-reference self-assessment on elementary school. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 15(2), 3-13.

Andrade, H. L., Ying, D., & Kristina, M. (2010). Rubric-referenced self-assessment and middle school students’ writing. Assessment in Education, 17(2), 199-214.

Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing useful language tests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bagley, S. S. (2008). High school students’ perceptions of narrative evaluations as summative assessment. American Secondary Education, 36(3), 15-32.

Bailey, K. (1999). Washback in language testing. TOEFL Monograph Series. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Black, P. (2000). Research and the development of educational research. Oxford Review of Education, 26(3), 407-418.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1), 7-74.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998b). Formative assessment: Raising standards. School Science Review, 80(291), 39-46.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2005). Changing teaching through formative assessment: Research and practice. The King’s-Medway-Oxfordshire Formative assessment Project. English Literature Review, 223-240.

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 9-20.

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2003). Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice. Berkshire, England: Open University Press.

Bobby, Z., Koner, B. C., Sridhar, M. G., Nandeesha, H., Renuka, P., Setia, S., & Asmathulla, S. (2007). Formulation of questions followed by small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 35(1), 45–48.

Boud, D. (1989). The Role of assessment in students grading. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 14(1), 20-30.

Boud, D., & McDonald, B. (2003). The impact of self-assessment on achievement: The effects of self-assessment training on performance in external examinations. Assessment in Higher Education, 10(2), 209-220.

Boud, D., Ruth, C., & Jane, S. (2006). Peer learning and assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 24(4), 413-426.

Brindley, C., & Susan, S. (2006). Peer assessment in undergraduate programmes. Teaching in Higher Education, 3(1), 79-90.

Brookhart, S. M. (2013). How to use and create rubrics for formative assessment and grading. Alexandria: the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Brown, H. D. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. New York: Longman.

Buck, G. A., & Amy, E. T. (2009). Preparing teachers to make the formative assessment process integral to science teaching and learning. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20(5), 475-494.

Butler, S. A., & Hodge, S. R. (2001). Enhancing student trust through peer assessment in physical education. Physical Educator, 58(1), 30-42.

Camp, C. L., et al. (2010). Comparative efficacy of group and individual feedback in Gross Anatomy for promoting medical student professionalism. Anatomical Sciences Education, 3, 64-73.

Chan, C. Y., &Shui-Fong, L. (2010). Effects of evaluative feedback on students’ self-efficacy in learning. Instructional Science, 38(1), 37-58.

Cheng, L. (1997). How does washback influence teaching? Implications for Hong Kong. Language and Education, 11(1), 38-54.

Cho, H. Y., et al. (2012). Analysis of questioning technique during classes in medical education. BMC Medical Education, 12(39), 1-7.

Clark, I. (2012). Formative assessment: Assessment is for self-regulated. Educational Psychology Review, 24(2), 205-249.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge Flamer.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Boston: Pearson Education.

Creswell, J. W., & Clark, P. V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. 2nd Edition, Sage Publications, Los Angeles.

Crooks, T. J. (1988). The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Review of Educational Research, 58(4), 438-481.

Dayal, H. C., & Lingam, I. L. (2015). Fijian teachers’ conceptions of assessment. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(8), 42-58.

Denscombe, M. (2003). The Good research guide for small-scale social research projects. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Etemadzadeh, A. & et al. (2013). The role of questioning technique in developing thinking skills: The Ongoing Effect on Writing Skill. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1024-1031.

Everhand, C. J., & L., Murphy. (2015). Assessment and autonomy in language learning. USA: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2007). Checking for understanding: Formative assessment techniques for your classroom. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA.

Fontana, D., & Fernandes, M. (1994) Improvements in mathematics performance as a consequence of self-assessment in Portuguese primary school pupils. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 64, 407-417.

Forbes, E. W. (2007). Improving the knowledge and use of formative assessment: A case study of a model of formative assessment in a K--3 science curriculum. (University of Delaware). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304859992?accountid=12598.

Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2011). The formative assessment action plan: Practical steps to more successful teaching and learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Gall, M. D. (1970). The use of questions in teaching. Review of Educational Research, 40, 707-721.

Gardner, H. (2004). The Unschooled mind: How children think and how school should teach. New York: basic books.

Ghaicha, A. (2016). Theoretical framework for educational assessment: A synoptic review. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4), 212-231.

Ghaicha, A., & Ait Taleb, A. (2016). Investigating the effectiveness of peer reviewing in a Moroccan University EFL writing Class. Higher Education of Social Science, 11(5), 1-12.

Goodrich, H. (1997). Understanding rubrics. Educational Leadership, 54 (4), 14–17.

Harlen, W., & Crick, R. D. (2003). Testing and Motivation for Learning, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 10 (2), 169-207, DOI: 10.1080/0969594032000121270

Harlen, W., & Deakin, C. R. (2002). A systematic review of the impact of summative assessment and tests on students’ motivation for learning. Research Evidence in Education Library, 1. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education.

Hattum-Janssen, V., & Fernandes, J. M. (2012). Peer feedback: quality and quantity in large groups. 40th SEFI Conference, 23-26 September 2012, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Herman, J. L., Osmundson, E., & Silver, D. (2010). Capturing quality in formative assessment practice: Measurement challenges. CRESST Report 770. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. Retrieved from http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/reports/R770.

Hernandez, R. (2012). Does continuous assessment in higher education support students learning?. Higher Education, 64, 489-502.

Hoetker, J., & Ahlbrand, W. P. (1969). The persistence of the recitation. American
Educational Research Journal
, 6, 145-167.

Irons, A. (2008). Enhancing formative assessment and feedback. London: Routledge.

Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques (2nd ed.), New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

Kuze, M. W., & Almun, S. (2011). An investigation into formative assessment practices of teachers in selected schools in Fort Beaufort in South Africa. Journal of Social Science, 29(2), 159-170.

Kuze, M. W., & Almun, S. (2011). An investigation into formative assessment practices of teachers in selected schools in Fort Beaufort in South Africa. Journal of Social Science, 29(2), 159-170.

Lee, H., A., Feldman., & Beatty, L. D. (2012). Factors that affect science and mathematics teachers’ initial implementation of technology-enhanced formative assessment. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21(5), 523-539.

Lucking, R. A. (1976). A study of the effects of a hierarchically-ordered questioning technique on adolescents’ responses to short stories. Research in the Teaching of English, 10(3), 269-276.

Lucking, R. A. (1976). A study of the effects of a hierarchically-ordered questioning technique on adolescents’ responses to short stories. Research in the Teaching of English, 10(3), 269-276.

McDonald, B. (2007). Self-assessment for understanding. The Journal of Education, 188(1), 25-40.

Messick, S. (1996). Validity and washback in language testing. Language Testing, 13(3), 241–256.

Ochanji, M. (2000). Rethinking the role of the science teacher: Eschewing standardized testing in formative assessment vor of authentic assessment. The Science Teacher, 67(5), 24-27.

Ofsted (2008). Assessment for Learning: the Impact of National Strategy Support. London: Ofsted. Retrieved from http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/9309/.

Ohlsen, T. M. (2007). Classroom assessment practices of secondary school members of NCTM. American Secondary Education, 36(1), 4-14.

Popham, W J (1987). The Merits of measurement-driven instruction. Phi Delta Kappan, 68, 679-682.

Richards. J. C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ross, A. J., Anne, H., and Carol, R. (2002). Student self-evaluation in grade 5-6 mathematics effects on problem-solving achievement. Educational Assessment, 8(1), 43-58.

Ross, J. A., & Michelle S. (2008). Self-assessment in a technology-supported environment: the case of grade 9 geography. Assessment in Education, 15(2), 183-199.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., & Maria, E. F. (2006). Informal formative assessment and scientific inquiry: exploring teachers’ practices and student learning. Educational Assessment, 11(3&4), 205-235.

Shah, J., & Inamullah, H. M. (2012). The impact of overcrowded classroom on the academic performance of students at secondary level. International Journal of Research in Commerce, Economics and Management, 2(6), 9-12.

Shohamy, E. (2001). The power of tests: A critical perspective on the uses of language tests. London: Pearson.

Shute, J. V. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. American Educational Research Association, 78(1), 153-189.

Stevens, J. J., & Aleamoni, L. M. (1985). The use of evaluative feedback for instructional improvement: A longitudinal perspective. Instructional Science, 13(4), 285-304. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00117573

Stiggins, R., (2006). Balanced assessment systems: Redefining excellence in assessment. Portland, OR: Educational Testing Service.

Vanderstoep, S.W. & Johnston, D.D. (2009). Research methods for everyday life blending qualitative and quantitative approaches. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Volante, L., & Beckett, D. (2011). Formative assessment and the contemporary classroom: Synergies and tensions. Canadian Journal of Education, 34(2), 239-255.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Weathly, L., et al. (2015). Feeding back to feed forward: Formative assessment as platform for effective learning. Kentucky Journal of Higher Education, 3(2), 1-29.

Wen, M. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2006). University students’ perceptions of and attitudes towards (online) peer assessment. Higher Education, 51(1), 27-44.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/12015

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Social Science

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; css@cscanada.net; css@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Canadian Social Science are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CANADIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE Editorial Office 

Address1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada.

Website: Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailcss@cscanada.net, css@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture