Assessing the Viability of Desalination for Rural Water Supply: A Case Study of Chwaka, Zanzibar
Zanzibar has been struggling with water scarcity issues over the last few decades due to an increase in consumption on the island and a deterioration of existing supply infrastructure. Poor distribution has affected rural communities most, due to their absence of tourism development, which has gone hand in hand with infrastructure establishment. Foreign aid has begun to address the issue by investing in alternative forms of water supply. In November 2011, a solar and wind powered desalination unit was inaugurated in the village of Chwaka, which, previous studies have shown, suffers from salt contaminated wells. This study sought to assess the viability of this alternative source of water in Chwaka and found that the desalination unit installed is not a viable source of freshwater for the entire village of Chwaka compared to government piped well water. Installed with the best intentions for the people of Chwaka, the presence and purpose of the machine is unknown to most of the village and its production capacity could only hope to supplement drinking water. Relative investment costs of distributing similar volumes of water show that piped water is the cheaper option. The intentions of the project are nonetheless laudable and this type of innovative investment should be encouraged as long as the government is not asked to take the bill. Zanzibar has access to adequate freshwater resources and must look to efficient consumption before turning to alternative forms of water production.
Key words: Advantages; Alternative; Chwaka; Desalination; Disadvantages; Drinking; Freshwater; Supply; Tanzania; Viability; Water; Zanzibar
Becker, N., Lavee, D., & Katz, D. (2010). Desalination and Alternative Water-Shortage Mitigation Options in Israel: A Comparative Cost Analysis. Scientific Research, (2), 1042-1056.
Brannan, P. (2008). Debunking Desalination - The “Miracle Process” that can’t Cure the World’s Water Woes. E Magazine, (3/4), 16-18.
Conway, M. (2008). The Desalination Solution. The Futurist, (5-6), 23-24.
HALCROW Consulting Engineers. (1994). Government of Zanzibar Ministry of Water Construction Energy Lands and Environment. The Development of Water Resources in Zanzibar Final Report.
Hansson, E. (2010). Groundwater on Zanzibar -- Use and Pollutants. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Semiat, R. (2008). Energy Issues in Desalination Processes. Environmental Science & Technology, 44(22), 8193. Retrieved from http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es801330u
Shah, A.S. (2003). Value of Improvements in Water Supply Reliability in Zanzibar Town. Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, USA.
Slade, L., Ali, T., Hajj, M., & Salum, N.M. (2012). Water Equity in Tourism: Zanzibar Case Study. Mwambao Coastal Community Network.
Suileman, S.S. (2011, August 23). Participatory Model for Water Supply and Sanitation in Zanzibar – Tanzania. Presentation from the 2011 World Water Week. Stockholm, Sweden.
Sultan, A. (2011, November 15). Shamhuna Inaugurates Desalination Plant. Daily News.
Villholth, K.G. (2008). Cleaning Wells After Seawater Flooding. International Water Management Institute. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/envsan/seawater_flooding.pdf
Wagner, L. (2007). Water Desalination-Tap into the
Liquid Gold. Mora Associates.
- There are currently no refbacks.
If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".
We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture (CAOOC)
Address:758, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138