The Influence of Teaching Practice in Primary and Secondary Schools on Teaching Efficacy of Normal University Students

Hongxia ZHANG


This study was conducted with 51 normal university students in a third-year class of an English major at a university. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis was used, and questionnaires and interviews were adopted as research tools. The questionnaire survey was applied to measure the teaching efficacy of the students before and after the internship as a volunteer teacher. Six normal university students majoring in English from the object of study were selected for interviews and recordings, and two interviews were conducted before and after the internship to dig deeper into imperceptible changes in the subjective emotions of those students before and after their internships. After the questionnaires and interviews were completed at each stage, SPSS 26.0 was used to analyse the stage data and overall data from the questionnaires, and content analysis was carried out on the interview data. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of educational internships on normal university students’ sense of teaching efficacy, identify the influencing factors, propose strategies to enhance the sense of teaching efficacy of normal university students majoring in English, and provide guiding suggestions for the pre-service cultivation of normal university students, the construction of courses for those students, and the improvement of the level of cooperation with internship bases.


Teaching efficacy; Normal university students majoring in English; Internship as a volunteer teacher

Full Text:



Arsal, Z. (2014). Microteaching and pre-service teachers’ sense of self-efficacy in teaching. European Journal of Teacher Education, (4), 453-465.

BaiduEncyclopedia (2022).

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, (84), 191-215.

Chen, X. M. (2003). Practical knowledge: The knowledge foundation of teacher professional development. Educational Review of Peking University, (1), 104-112.

Geng, W. X., & Sun, Y. M. (2010). An investigation and analysis of the influence of internship practice on normal university students. Journal of Hebei Normal University (Education Science Edition), (5), 114-117.

Guo, X. J., & Wang, Q. (2009). The relationship between teaching practice and professional development of pre-service English teachers. Foreign Language and Language Teaching, (3), 28-33.

Horvitz, B. S., Beach, A. L., Anderson, M. L., & Xia, J. G. (2015). Examination of faculty self-efficacy related to online teaching. Innovative High Education, (40), 305-316.

Hu, L. C., & Qin, L. X. (2013). A study on the belief development of free normal university students in the field of practice. Academic Exploration, (8), 140-144.

Li, J. R. (2013). A survey of pre-service English teachers’ self-efficacy (pp.2-14). Heilongjiang: Northeast Forestry University.

Luo, S. Q., & Meng, X. Y. (2015). Current situation and improvement strategies of teaching effectiveness of primary and secondary school teachers. Curriculum, Textbook and Teaching Method, (5), 12-20.

Mei, Y., & Han, Q. (2020). A case study on the influence of teaching practice on teaching efficacy of English normal university students. English Teachers, (9), 71-79.

Tang, J. (2014). A survey and research on professional identity, job burnout and teaching efficacy of middle school English teachers. Foreign Language and Literature, (1), 19-25.

Wang, H. (2002). A comparative study on the teaching efficacy of urban and rural primary and secondary school teachers (pp.8-19). Shaanxi: Shaanxi Normal University.

Wu, X. Y. (2018). A qualitative study on the impact of teaching practice on English normal university students’ teaching efficacy beliefs. Shandong Foreign Language Teaching, (2), 46-56.

Yao, Y., & Li, F. H. (2012). Thinking on the reform of educational internship for normal university students in China. Education Research, (2), 103-108.

Yu, T. (2016). A case study of the impact of educational internship on pre-service English teachers’ cognition. English Research, (3), 21-131.

Zhu, X. M., & Zhang, H. L. (2010). The influence of educational practice on pedagogical knowledge development of teachers and students. Teacher Education Research, (3), 10-14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Hongxia Zhang

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Online Submission:

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;;

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://; Http://;

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture